Tag Archives: life

Certificate and the Ring

It is March already and graduating students from Engineering and Geoscience programs in several provinces across Canada are excited to receive their professional certificates and the infamous rings. Future Engineers get their Iron Rings and the future Geologists and Geophysicists get their Earth Rings1.

To some people receiving the certificate and the ring represent just another stage in their life. To others it represents absolutely nothing. In extreme cases students and professionals criticize this practice stating there is no reason to have a professional regulatory body. This is how the meaningfulness of having a ring ceremony can be lost in translation. Yes of course Canada is a free country and everyone is entitled to their own opinions. However, as a matter of principle I believe these professional qualification rings are not pieces of jewelry. The certificates are certainly not just meaningless papers you add to your pile of certificates.

earth_erings_certificateThe certificate and the ring represent an academic and professional achievement. They are also historically significant and indicate the wearers support for the ethical principles and governing laws of the profession2. Furthermore, the ring is a symbol of your hard work, dedication, knowledge and success in your academic life. Just like you and your friends who are graduating this year, thousands of others before you have went through the same process. The certificate represents that you have achieved the academic goals to be an Engineer or a Geoscientist. It shows that you are qualified to perform certain task under specific ethical and fundamental principles of the profession3. It also represent you are part of a wider professional organizations such as Engineers Canada, Geoscientists Canada and the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Alberta (APEGA).

Majority of those who oppose regulations are in the geoscience sector. There are two popular arguments against regulatory bodies circulating in the opposition camp. First argument is that unlike engineers, geoscientists do not take critical enough decisions to be regulated. Respectfully, I completely disagree with the this statement because there are numerus engineering failures caused by the lack of geological input such as hydroelectric dam failures due to misinterpretation or rocks and soils. Geoscientists are as important as engineers but unlike engineers it seems we ourselves devalue our own profession.

The second argument is that geoscience certifications such as Geoscientist in Training (GIT) or Professional Geoscientist (P. Geo) is not widely recognized. This problem can also be fixed though regulatory bodies by enforcing rules and regulations to govern who can be qualified to work in the industry. The biggest problem in acceptance of geoscience professional certifications is that our own Geologists and Geophysicists insist on not recognizing them. I think this mentality has to change to protect our young professionals and future generations. It is disrespectful that some of the professional geoscientist who worked in the industry and research for decades wants to strike down policies that would improve acceptance of GIT and P. Geo certifications. It is a one thing if you personally do not want to apply for it; it is entirely different when you try to make a propaganda movement out of it. Companies should give priority for individuals with professional certifications over others. The hiring and career advancement practices should be overhauled to recognize and provide more bearing to professional certifications.

Finally if I have not convinced you of the importance of professional regulatory bodies and professional certificates, think about the general public. If you look from a general public’s perspective, ask yourself, if you are not proud about your achievement as a professional, then why should others care about what you do? Why should a company hire you if you have no respect for professional traditions? Would you go to a doctor who refused to respect Hippocratic Oath? In order to receive respect from others, you should respect yourself first. If you are unable to understand and appreciate the values of these traditional professional organizations, maybe you should not be a professional scientist at all.


I am a new graduate (2016) with B.Sc. in Petroleum Geology. I am not an expert of anything. However, I have been told repeatedly by veteran Geologists and Geophysicists why certifications such as Geoscientist in Training (GIT) or Professional Geoscientist (P. Geo) are “useless” and “meaning less”. Often GIT and P. Geo certifications have been described as “what’s the point” and “it’s just a ring with a paper”. I wrote this article not to disrespect educated, intelligent and experienced geoscientists, but to encourage positive optimistic discussion on why it is important to recognize certifications and professional regulatory bodies.


1. Engineering graduates across Canada receives Iron Rings, but not all Geoscience graduates receive Earth Rings. Some Canadian provinces do not have an Earth Ring ceremony.
2. Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Alberta (APEGA)
3. Engineering and Geoscience Professions Act Alberta

Discrimination is well practiced in Asia and Middle East

When we talk about discrimination, it is always the Europeans who are often blamed for the problem. This is well demonstrated in majority of Western newspapers and publications. Often these Western papers portray racism as a problem for the non-Whites created by the Whites. The popular media completely ignore the hardships South Asian and African people face on other parts of the world, which includes their own people. While I am not denying that racism, xenophobia, sexism and discrimination exists in Europe and North America, I would like highlight that these problems are not limited to the Western world. From my own personal experience, I can say with confidence that I have faced racism from Canadians of South Asian, Middle Eastern, African and Eastern European decent than the Canadian born Canadian citizens. Even my first experience of racism in Canada is actually by an India born Canadian citizen not a Canadian himself.

Some Sri Lankans even attack other cultures such as Chinese culture in order to prove that Europeans are so much better. Apparently for those people in Sri Lanka, being White is enough to make you the superior race.

Middle East

A European, pure white person with a technical diploma can earn almost twice the money as a South Asian or a Black person with a degree in the exact same field. In fact, in Middle Eastern oil producing counties, such as Saudi Arabia, they worship white skin.

Additional scanning of darker skin colored individuals is performed in Middle Eastern international airports. Even if you were born in Europe and you have been a European citizen since the birth, if you have darker skin, you will be a moving target for the immigration and customs officials.

South Asian Discrimination

It is much easier for a white person to find a job in India than to find a job for a high caste Indian. It is somewhat easier for a non-Indian South Asian (such as a Sri Lankan) to find a job in India than to an Indian born low caste person to get recognized for his/her talents. Because India still has their traditional barbaric caste system, it is almost impossible for a person who born into a low caste family to obtain a high paying job. Even if that person find a high paying jobs, the other coworkers and subordinates will not cooperate with you, making your office environment extremely hostile. However, the flip side of the coin is a European living in India. A white man will be given the best possible treatment even if that person is under-qualified for the job. A white women will be treated like a queen in India, but a South Asian women with much higher qualifications will be treated like a piece of dirt, which also has to do with traditional disrespect for the Indian women.

English teaching jobs were given to individuals of European background without proper certifications or qualifications.

In Sri Lanka, if the current government is pro-White and pro-European, it is much easier for a person of European decent to exploit and abuse commercial and personal tax and visa policies than to a Sri Lankan born Sri Lankan citizen who oppose the current government (regardless of the political party in power). While majority of the general public (population) is not racist or bias, the government officials are often bias toward in favor of Europeans. One reason for this is the Sri Lanka’s very high dependency on tourism from the Western world. Often the pro-USA and pro-European governments favor the European religious and racial extremism and superiority, which results in how social policies are governed against the Sri Lankan cultures themselves. In some rare cases, similar job situations going on in India have had happened in Sri Lanka. English teaching jobs were given to individuals of European background without proper certifications or qualifications while Sri Lankan English teachers were taken out of the classrooms. I know from talking to people in my community where they have replaced skilled teachers with a subpar teacher from the Western world just because they are being Europeans. Sri Lankan pre-undergraduate education is 100% free and has a very high literacy rate. However, by replacing educators solely based on the skin colour will destroy the educational system by allowing unqualified individuals to hold teaching positions.

Jokes such as “Indians are always late”, “Sri Lankans have no ethics” and “our government is always corrupt and run by criminals” are actually originated by Indians and Sri Lankans themselves. If you take these comments/notions with real facts, you can apply the same for Western governments was well. For example, the Liberal Sponsorship Scandal that ran between 1995 and 2007 can be used to label Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin as “corrupt” politicians and the Government of Canada is “corrupt and run by criminals”. The Calgary C-Train is almost always late regardless of who is in our City Council in charge of public transport. But yet, the South Asians seems to have selective amnesia when a Sri Lankan Airlines or an Air India flight gets delayed due to weather. It is much easier to keep light railway line on time than to run a major international airport. I rarely hear South Asian people in Canada say that Calgary transit is always late as usual just like the Calgarians. But when something goes wrong delaying a South Asian run function in Calgary, I often hear the phrases like “it is late just like anything Indian” by our own South Asian people in Canada.

A new trend in Sri Lanka is the growing number of people who worship people of European descent. Some Sri Lankans even attack other cultures such as Chinese culture in order to prove that Europeans are so much better. Apparently for those people in Sri Lanka, being White is enough to make you the superior race. It is disgusting and disgraceful not only to great civilizations such as Chinese civilization, but it also leave the Sri Lankan communities open for exploitations by some entities from the European communities. For example, two offers for a major railway project in Sri Lanka. Let’s say one offer is from the Chinese in which they asked for 2% per annum interest rate back for the support. Another from an American/European group wants full control of the railway line once it is built plus 5% annum interest rate. The pro-White Sri Lankans will pick the American/European offer.

Bali Nine case is a very good specific example of how both Australian Federal Police and the Indonesian racist government officials reacted to drug trafficker. Race of the convicted parties is a huge factor for why the key players in the Bali Nine drug trafficking case were given death penalties. There are White people who have been caught with drugs by the Indonesian racists’ government officials before. None of them have been executed. Michael Blanc (1974), a French national convicted of drug trafficking received life imprisonment conviction. Given all other things being equal, it was only the race that played a major role in the decision of death penalties.

Furthermore, the support of the Australian public for putting Myuran Sukumaran and Andrew Chan to death exposed the underlying racism in majority of White Australians. Several polls conducted in Australia show most Australians supported the executions. However, very few Australian and other international media reported the fact the majority of white Australians are disassociated with the Bali Nine ring leaders, who are non-White Australians. Additionally, I believe the Australian Federal Police’s decision to share information which lead to arrest of these individuals would have been second guessed if the drug trafficking leaders happen to be that of European descent.

Advice to all South Asians and Africans

Educate yourself and promote harmony and right values.

If you are a South Asian or African or Middle Eastern person, please top living in denial. Instead, educate yourself and promote harmony and right values. Instead of holding someone superior due to their race, respect everyone based on who they are. I should not be the only person to publicly talk about this growing problems. Others should step forward because otherwise, the problems will just keep growing. Running away from problems in our own communities and hoping for the best is not what we should be doing!

If you are well to do individual of South Asian or African decent living in the Western world, do not travel to Middle East or South Asia without horrendous precautions. If you really want to travel to Middle East or South Asia, make sure you are a millionaire. This way at least you may be able to pay your way out of blatant racist and racially motivated attacks during your journey.

Final words

It is unfortunate that major newspapers are not willing to publish the facts. It is very unfortunate that my European friends in Canada and elsewhere do not understand this issue because they have never experienced it firsthand. Just like we openly talk about gay rights in Canada, I think we should openly talk about the racism Blacks and South Asians face in the non-Western world.

Mindfulness without the core values

After scientific research proved mindfulness meditation and physiological treatments derived from ancient Buddhist traditions work better than chemical-based medications1,2,3, mindfulness techniques have been growing in popularity in the Western world. The companies like Google Inc. have hired specialist to train their staff on mindfulness. American (USA) prisons officials have used it to control and reduce violence among inmates. Several pre-postsecondary schools have used it to help teens cope with stress and anger. But the teaching of mindfulness has been clouded due to extensive modifications to the practice. From few years from now, the mindfulness techniques used in North America and Europe may not even be as effective as the original version derived from Buddhism.

In order to cater to those who hate Buddhism, but love the benefits of Eastern philosophies, the mindfulness experts work hard to remove Buddhism so that those bigots can also be benefited from the practice.

Dr. Russ Harris, an Australian expert in mindfulness wrote: “‘Mindfulness’ is an ancient concept, found in a wide range of spiritual and religious traditions, including most martial arts, yoga, tai chi, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.”4. The very idea of mindfulness and the techniques associated with it have only been found in Buddhism and not in any other religion or philosophy stated by individuals like Dr. Harris. By stating it was also found in other religious, the Dr. Harris is trying to take away the significance of Buddhism in mindfulness mediation. It is a blatant attempt to hijack Buddhism based mindfulness and integrates it into Westernized ideology. This is not an uncommon practice among some European and Western academics. The non-Buddhist academic community has been aggressively trying to “purify” Buddhism out of the mindfulness equation. It is not only scientifically unethical, but also reflects the “typical” European or Western mentality of stealing from others. Most of these mindfulness experts fabricate evidence because their clients are devoted Christians. In order to cater to those who hate Buddhism, but love the benefits of Eastern philosophies, the mindfulness experts work hard to remove Buddhism so that those bigots can also be benefited from the practice.

Misconduct, Plagiarism and Falsification

Ask yourself; if you had written a thesis on special relativity principle and decided not to credit Albert Einstein and others, does that constitute professional or academic misconduct? According policies of several universities, governments and professional organizations in Canada, presenting materials without proper credits considered as a serious breach of conduct5, 6. A student who submit a document with incorrect or no citations could face severe penalty6. A professional could lose their practice license for plagiarism7. These same rules of ethics should be applied to those who promote mindfulness. Unfortunately due to the lack of oversight or regulatory body, anyone can teach meditation in most parts of the world.

Experts misrepresent Buddhism for financial gains.

Buddhist Mediation is Abused Openly

On 23 of December 2014, the Shaw Cable TV Canada broadcast a program highlighting how companies in Canada and US, including Google Inc., use mindfulness as a tool to help develop positive workplace environments. The program lasted for about 30 minutes, but the so called experts in mindfulness never mention the connection between mindfulness and Buddhism. In fact, I got the feeling that they have done everything to cover up that it is a form of Buddhist practice. Alberta is a known Conservative region in Canada and therefore I am not surprised by the cover up. However, if you are determined to exclude all references to Buddhism, you should consider using synthetic drugs instead of mindfulness at the first place. The drugs may be more effective than the watered-down version of mindfulness mediation.

This is not the only thing that capitalism based economies and Euro-centric societies have hijacked from others. While falsification of Eastern ideologies as Western has been done since the European imperialism days, today it is done much more openly. The swastika is a well-known fabrication used by Adolf Hitler8. It is used by Hindus and Buddhists for thousands of years before Hitler hijacked and used as a symbol for Nazi regime. Even today most people live in the West have no idea where it came from; except if they “Googled it”. Another example of such hijacking is the term “Buddha” used by strip clubs and night clubs as a brand name. Even a person with slightest idea of what “Buddha” stands for would not use it for such activities. It does not represent anything to do with clubs let along strip clubs. In Canada, one of the most ironic trends in the 21st century is learning Vipassana Meditation without Buddhism. It is like learning English without the English alphabet. With the speared of Westernization, the abuse of Eastern ideologies has spread to the East itself.

Buddhist mediation programs in the prison systems have been scrapped due to outcry from the fundamentalist Christian community.

The popular media usually do not focus on this issue. However, recently few liberal media sectors have picked up the obvious xenophobic nature of North Americans. In the 2008 documentary, Dhamma Brothers by Andrew Kukura highlighted one of many well-known recent instances where people have either attacked Buddhism or hijacked Buddhist traditions. In the documentary they covered prison inmates who were given instructions for Buddhist mediation. The Buddhist mediation was used as a method to control violence and help clam the prisoner. It was started as a trail and it was highly successful. Therefore, the prison officials decided to extend the meditation program. But the Buddhist mediation programs in the prison systems have been scrapped due to outcry from the fundamentalist Christian community (Watch: Dhamma Brothers; 2008 Documentary for detailed information). So much for “freedom” of everything in America when on group bullies the other. It is ironic that these same fundamentalist Christians also protest when they were met with any opposition to their anti-Buddhist Christian conversions in South Asia. In other words, it is good to spread of the word of the Jesus in the Buddhist world, but you dare not exercise the freedom of speech in Christian USA to teach effective Buddhist mediation.

Buddhists Don’t Care

If you asked Buddhists about misrepresentation of Buddhist practices by others, most of them will not have any objections. This is the nature of Buddhists. Buddhists are generally peaceful and often avoid confrontations from other religious communities. But it should not be used as an excuse by these mindfulness experts to exploit Buddhism for their own agenda. I find it appalling that the “silence” of the global Buddhism community has been used to promote mindfulness without core Buddhist values.

It is a widespread issue

This is not limited to the examples I provided above. This is a widespread issue that cut across all levels of experts. From reputed university professors to yoga instructors and lay practitioners, everyone wants Buddhist mindfulness without Buddhism. In 2015, the “meditation and alternative medicine” industry has grown rapidly. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of companies specializing mindfulness. Each organization and individual has their own interpretation of the practice. To most, it is just a “fashion” statement rather than an effective psychological treatment. If your neighbor is doing it, you want it to because it is the new trend.

Most of these mindfulness experts misrepresent Buddhism for financial gains. Commercialization of Buddhism must appeal to the non-Buddhist and anti-Buddhists in our society. Otherwise the financial loss could be catastrophic. This is the primary reason why Buddhism is a problem to Buddhist based mindfulness.

I think that falsification and misrepresentation of the origins of mindfulness will eventually lead to ineffective practices. It is disgraceful that these so called mindfulness professionals abuse the system. It is specially concerns me when educated individuals such as research professors also falls victim to such absurd interpretation of Buddhism. But at the end of the day, those who practice mindfulness without proper Buddhist meditation will reap far less than those who integrate Buddhist values. Unfortunately this hijacking of concepts from other cultures and claiming them as theirs is not a new trend in the European-based civilizations across the globe.


1. Miller, J. J., Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General hospital psychiatry, 17(3), 192-200.

2. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of behavioral medicine, 8(2), 163-190.

3. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., … & Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic medicine, 65(4), 564-570.

4. Harris, R. (2009, October 1). Mindfulness without meditation. Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.actmindfully.com.au/upimages/mindfulness_without_meditation_–_russ_harris_–_hcpj_oct_09.pdf

5. How Not to Plagiarize. (2010, July 14). Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/using-sources/how-not-to-plagiarize

6. K.2 Plagiarism/Cheating/Other Academic Misconduct. (2014, January 1). Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/pubs/calendar/current/k-2.html

7. 500.25- Scientific Integrity. (2013, February 13). Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-25.html

8. Merkl, P. H. (1975). Political violence under the Swastika. New Jersey.


This article may have hit a nerve for some readers. That is why I have provided you with a very good references list (above). While the article has some of my own interoperations or options, every single “fact” has been thoroughly researched and backed with third party evidence. If you are offended by the article, then you must be offended at anyone who exercises the freedom of speech. There is a difference between freedom of speech and the abuse of speech. This article does not incite violence or promote hatred (abuse of speech). But simply it highlights the reality of the hypocritical society with proper evidence (freedom of speech).

Few tips for new Geoscience students

Fault steps
Fault steps

Even before we go into minute details on being a successful Geoscience student, let me explain why we use “Geoscience” as opposed to “Earth Science” or “Geology”. Geology can be loosely defined as the study of solid Earth and the processes which the Earth evolve. But it has grown into a multidisciplinary field with several different specializations. Geology itself has few different sub specializations such as hydrology, environmental, petroleum, engineering, mining and precious metal, geochemistry, etc. Additionally we have two major sectors; Geology and Geophysics. Hence I think the best way to describe all of these sub sections is to use the term “Geoscience”.

Classes and Labs

Unlike taking a degree in Business, Economics or Political Science, Geoscience degrees involve both theoretical lectures and practical labs. In some classes it is more important to pay attention to laboratory materials than to study lecture notes. In others, visualization skills are more important than analytical skills. When I was a first year student, even I was surprised about the amount of hands-on materials in Geology labs. To be successful, you must manage your time appropriately. Even if the lab components (including the lab exams) worth less, I would spend more time studying lab materials than lecture materials. However, each and every individual have their own system.

Here are few quick tips for labs:

  • Spend a lot of time on identification of minerals, rocks, fossils and features.
  • Ask a lot of questions from your TAs, Professors and friends.
  • Always discuss with your friends when working with lab materials (do not copy each other).
  • Try to relate lab materials to lectures.
  • Read the lab manuals carefully because they are written specifically to cover information on your course (as opposed to textbook).
  • Always pay attention to detail and create your own “tricks” to identify materials.
  • Make sure to draw diagrams with proper labels, scales and key features.
  • Lab samples are for all the students to use. It is not yours! Treat them with care and do not take any lab samples or equipment out of the lab without prior permission from an appropriate authority.

Here are few quick tips for lectures:

  • Never skip (miss) classes unless you have to. Most Professors will provide very useful hints, tricks and tips during their lectures that may not appear on lecture handouts.
  • Make useful friends (not like sitting next to a cute girl with a dumb brain) so that if you missed a class, you can get a copy of the class notes from them instead of emailing the entire 200+ students.
  • Never assume anything. Always ask questions if you are not sure about something.
  • Be prepared for the class. Some Professors may post the lecture notes in advanced. Read them or at least quickly go over the key titles/concepts. Never skip on reading recommended textbook pages or other materials.

Here are few tips for exams:

  • Always ask questions about the exam BEFORE the exam.
  • If you come across questions that you are not sure about, ask the invigilators during the exam.
  • Find old exams from exam banks such as the Geology Students Union’s exam bank. Sometimes these old exams questions can show up on your exam word to word.
  • For lab exams, spend at least few hours per each lab sample that will (may) be covered in the exam.
  • You may want to come to the labs after hours to study. If you don’t like crowded labs, I highly recommend Friday evenings or Sunday evenings.
  • Study with your friends because Geoscience is not always a clear cut science. Sometimes there is no such thing as one right answer, but rather the better answer.
  • If you have any leaning difficulties or you have any disabilities, contact the appropriate office for help as soon as possible. There is always suitable help available for most students.

Additionally there are always extra help available to students in most universities and colleges in Canada. If you do not know where to go to, ask your Professor or the Students Union.

Field Work

The best advice I can give you is to have fun. Some people may panic and overdo something. It is not very productive to be panicking. However, pay attention to the safety protocols and always ask questions before you embark on misadventures. Additionally field school will allow you to think outside the box. So be an independent thinker and try to interpret formations, rocks, minerals, etc on your own before asking for help.


I find it very irritating that some people have this fixed system of studying. For example, some say that you should spend minimum of two hours studying per each hour of lecture. While this is true for almost 90% of the students, if you happen to be that exceptional one, feel free to study less. Personally I would study as much as possible because sometimes the difference between an A- and a B+ may be just that one concept that I did not study. Also please do not get caught in procrastination. Those high school last night pull offs most likely not going to work at the university level. Additionally, I have written up on Effective Study Habits tips on a previous article.

Hope all these articles help you in someway. Good luck on your academics!

Pictures from field school

The pictures are from the Carlin Canyon, Nevada Field School instructed by Dr. Charles Henderson and Dr. Benoit Beauchamp at the University of Calgary. However, this page has no affiliation to the professors or the university. This is a personal (Sanuja Senanayake) collection of images. The GPS reading are taken either from the built-in GPS locator in the camera or from field notes. I found that the location information can be highly inaccurate. One should not use the information on this page for any type of field work. The images are posted purely for entertainment.


Location: 40°44’05.8″N 116°01’18.3″W
Elevation: 1478.70 m
Image direction: 100.73° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Conglomerate formed by cyclothems.
Conglomerate formed by cyclothems.

Features: Conglomerate formed as a result of cyclothems.


Location: 40° 44′ 10.26″ N 116° 1′ 2.946″ W
Elevation: 1641.20 m
Image direction: 51.06° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Crossbeds indicating marine environment.
Crossbeds indicating marine environment.

Features: Inclined layers with dipping indicating paleocurrents.


Location: 40° 44′ 6.678″ N 116° 1′ 9.48″ W
Elevation: 1653.70 m
Image direction: 66.78° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Paleosols identified by roots and root traces.
Paleosols identified by roots and root traces.

Features: Roots and rootlets are indicative of paleosols. The Paleosols are formed under subareal exposure type environments.

Lava Rocks

Location: TBA
Elevation: TBA
Image direction: 2.05° (true direction)
Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Rocks formed by lava flows
Rocks formed by lava flows

Rocks formed by lava flows II
Rocks formed by lava flows II

Features: Ropy texture of this lava formation is indicative of pahoehoe lava.


Location: 40° 44′ 8.016″ N 116° 1′ 9.114″ W
Elevation: 1654.20 m
Image direction: 62.95° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Chert sticking out of the outcrop.
Chert sticking out of the outcrop.

Chert at another location.
Chert bands sticking out of the outcrop.
Chert bands sticking out of the outcrop.

Features: Chert is more weather resistant than the outcrop surrounding them. Therefore it will stick out and easy to identify. Generally all cherts are harder than the surrounding Geologic material.

Contact between Formations

Location: 40° 43′ 46.764″ N 116° 1′ 0.006″ W
Elevation: 1663.10 m
Image direction: 89.70° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Contact between two Formations.
Contact between two Formations.

Features: Different lithoologies will often have different weathering colours and patterns.

Misidentify a contact

Location: 40° 43′ 20.394″ N 116° 1′ 16.794″ W
Elevation: 1504.70 m
Image direction: 249.06° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

This looks like a contact, but it is not.
This looks like a contact, but it is not.

Features: This is not a contact but rather a fracture within the same formation. The difference in weathering colour may have been caused by the lower part being exposed to more fluid runoffs(?) from the fracture.

Fluvial Deposits

Location: TBA
Elevation: NA
Image direction: TBA
Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Fluvial deposits - Hoodoos
Fluvial deposits – Hoodoos

Features: Poorly sorted clasts from almost all Formations in the region. Lose sediments, friable and extremely poor bedding (almost no bedding). Formed as a result of weathering and erosion of other formations. May indicate a paleo river formation. Highly matrix supported with sandy size matrix particles.

Resistant (cliff forming) and Recessive

Location: 40° 43′ 40.8″ N 116° 1′ 10.1″ W
Elevation: NA
Image direction: 9.59° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Formations : Resistant and (cliff) recessive outcrops.
Formations : Resistant and (cliff) recessive outcrops.

Features: Even from a distance we can interpret some Geological formations. In this example, we can say that at least two major formations based on the cliff forming and recessive units. Often Geologists scans the area before climbing to the outcrop of interest. In this picture we are about 1 km (or may be bit less) away from the outcrops shown.

Lose (non-outcrop type) Carbonate

Location: 40° 44′ 9.54″ N 116° 0′ 15.426″ W
Elevation: 1617.40 m
Image direction: 58.65° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Lose sediments are an erosional feature.
Lose sediments are an erosional feature.

Features: Lose materials like these red carbonate pieces can be used to determine where the actual outcrop may be; up the slope!

Searching for outcrops like mountain goats

Location: 40° 43′ 3.3″ N 116° 0′ 9.306″ W
Elevation: 1569.70 m
Image direction: 167.06° (true direction)

Image: Click on the image for high resolution version.

Searching for outcrops.
Searching for outcrops.

Features: None that can be identified at this scale.


Chert in an unknown location (same area).
Chert in an unknown location (same area).
Crossbeds in an unknown location (same area).
Crossbeds in an unknown location (same area).