Tag Archives: life

Cloud computing: a blessing and a curse

Right after the DOT-COM bubble began to shrink, a new concept of computing called cloud computing gave hope to a dying breed. It boosted the profits of entirely Internet based companies like Dropbox Inc. and opened the market for new Internet based companies. The next big step for this technology is the “smart home” which also referred to as “connected home”.

Continue reading Cloud computing: a blessing and a curse

Shut Up or Get Out

I am proud to live as a free thinker who sees things as it is rather than a slave who follow the popular opinion

The society is dynamic. To some people, it can be difficult to adapt to evolving nature of our social norms. I must admit that I am one of those people. Thankfully I realized that I am not the only one who rather stand up for what is right over enslaving to popular opinion.

if you don’t like Canada, why don’t leave Canada?

Yes, it is normal to be unfair

Hypocrisy is the corner stone of most societies. From East to West, from ancient to modern and from very successful to failed civilizations have one thing in common; dynamic nature. No civilization is perfect. No community is a united community. While to the outsiders, a society like the Canadian society look perfect, it is impossible to achieve a perfect society. After all, how do you define what is right and what is wrong? How do you determine who is successful and who is not? Who is responsible for keeping scores and what would be the criteria for scoring high oh the moral/ethical high ground scale?

Personally, I believe no one is perfect, including myself. Like is unfair and it is supposed to be like that. What annoys me is that the media controlled by few (less than 10% of the world human population), mislead the public to paint a very bias picture for some benefactors. During 2012 to 2013, I monitored how some popular opinions in Canada (specifically in Calgary) shaped by the media. In October 2013, the Western media started a bullying campaign against Russia ahead of the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics. The hypocrisy is that the Western block is working hard to influence domestic politics in Russia using the Olympics as a weapon. What most media failed to point out, if the sample principles of criticism for Russia is used on Canada with respect to “police state” style G20 preparation and subsequent human rights abuses by the Canadian police and paramilitary groups, the whole smoke screen will disappear. But the BBC, CNN and other media giants did their best to please their masters by softening any information comes out of Canada. Every bit of information was per-planned and well filtered before released to the public. In fact the news related to human rights abuses by the Canadian officials in 2010 G-20 Toronto summit have NOT being fully broadcasted by the BBC and CNN wold services channels. So the rest of the world population such as India and China would hear the good side of the G20.

oh well, I was never raped… so you must be wrong!

However, now compare the coverage of CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) Summit in Sri Lanka this year. Not only the media has been on the offensive against the Government of Sri Lanka even before the event, but the human rights violators of their own citizens like Mr. Stephen Harper (PM of Canada) refused to participate in the event. Who gave the Harper the right to criticize internal affairs of Sri Lanka? After all, isn’t he the same person who told the media that the G-20 human rights abuses in Canada is an internal affair? It would be nice if it was only the top Government officials who is doing this. As soon as Canada refused to participate in CHOGM, a lot of Canadians, took to social media to show their pride supporting the PM’s decision.

The point is no one is perfect. But pointing figure against people like Adolf Hitler by accusing him of propaganda, when we are also doing exactly the same thing is hypocritical. Canada and it’s people with racist and violent past have been sugarcoating Canadian history for years. In this free speaking and democratic country, no abiding taxpayer is allowed to allow to criticize the popular opinion. One of my favorite quotes from hypocritical Canadians is “if you don’t like Canada, why don’t leave Canada?”. Why should a taxpaying Canadian citizen should be banned from Canada? Why a law-abiding Canadian citizen is not allow to criticize Canada, but the Canadians truly believe that they have the moral high grounds to citizen Sri Lanka? Mr. Harper do not pay taxes to Government of Sri Lanka!

I am not saying that you should not be critical of others. What I am saying is that you should also allow criticism of yourself. Accusing other countries of everything and being very defensive when someone problems in our own backyard is not a healthy solution. It will rather create more divisions in our human population than solving any problems. Yes, there are a lot of human rights abuses in China and Sri Lanka for example. But why not we also focus the light on Canadian Army raping children in Haiti peacekeeping mission? You love to have hypocritical one side of the argument because it only highlight the human rights violations of Chinese, but never the Canadians.

Shut Up or Get Out

as soon as a South Asian walked in to the same department, even the French-Canadians become discriminators rather than the victims

It is fact that Canadians used Chinese slaves to build our railroads. It is a fact that majority of foreign earned degrees were not recognized in Canada after the influx of immigrants turn out to be non-Christian and non-Whites. While the Canadians have used the few successful South Asians as a smoke screen to prove that Canada is truly multicultural, the true colours of Canadians have came out during the economic down turn in 2012. The promotions for South Asian Engineers, except for those who are puppets of the game (people who say, “well I am South Asian too and I never face discrimination…so you must be wrong”), have been halted while more and more even the non-English speaking Canadians of White descendents have been promoted. Irony is that I have proof that the discrimination among European populations disappear as soon as a non-European enters the picture. In one Calgary company the French-Canadians were discriminated for a long period. However, as soon as a South Asian walked in to the same department, even the French-Canadians become discriminators rather than the victims. Funny how Canada funds research into internal political and social issues of Sri Lanka and China, but yet no social research has been funded to prove issues in the Canadian society.

I asked my friends, if they would asked a rape victim to shut-up if they spoke against their predator. The majority said no…. and yet, every time I highlight a simple issue like workplace racial and religious discrimination in Canada, I was told to shut up or get out. I could safely say, “oh well, I was never raped… so you must be wrong!”. Oh ya… the irony and hypocrisy at their best.

Where is the evidence?

problem with publishing evidence is the repercussions

Since the powerful Western governments have spent millions of dollars in proving why Communist Party of China is bad for human race, they also pulled out all the funds for research that damage the utopian society in their backyard. Few of my friends asked me where is the evidence to prove that most South Asian Canadians were racially discriminated. I would like to ask my readers, where is your proof that the Communism is bad? If you are critical of where I obtain data, why I am not allow to be critical of where you obtain your data? Who gave you the right to be critical of China? Do you live there? Work their? I earned the right to be critical of Canada because I pay taxes and and I have contributed to the economic development of this country. What is your excuse to criticize the human rights of Sri Lanka? After all, the Canadian Prime Minister refused to attended the CHOGM 2013 in Sri Lanka based on his opinion on Sri Lanka’s internal affairs! According your logic, the Canadian Senate scandal should be justified to avoid all “Made in Canada” products and boycott anything Canadian. After all, who cares if it is an internal problem or not.

Another problem with publishing evidence is the repercussions. Canada lacks human rights and workers rights regulations to protect the whistleblowers. If I specifically publish the names of the companies on my website, I will be sued and the bad guys always have the ability to hide or alter the evidence to fit their “Canadian values”. Unlike in Capitalist countries like Canada, most Socialist countries including the United Kingdom (EU), have regulations to protect who stand up for what is right. But this bullshit free thinkers of Canada lags far behind when it comes to protecting victims from the criminals. However, I think one reason the empire (EU, Canada and US) is loosing ground in the United Nation on bullies other countries is that it has been increasingly difficult to keep the facts hidden. For example, the immigration to Canada from Asia and Africa increased because Canada created wars in Asia and Africa. It was the weapons companies in US and Canadian Security Intelligence Service that benefited from these wars. Now the Canada is paying the price by allowing immigrants including criminals the right to enter, live and be part of the Canadian society. Stop blaming the messenger and face the consequences of your own actions. By simply stating the obvious, I will make a lot of enemies and even lose friends. But I am proud to live as a free thinker who sees things as it is rather than a slave who follow the popular opinion.

Speak up now, but not before

The reason why I spoke out about issues hidden in Canada is that recently the Canadian Federal Government officials and so called “Human Rights Organizations” have yelled at other people’s face. For what? For what they called, “rights violations”. That’s why finally I decided to speak up. Someone has to take the bullet against hypocrisy.

Buddhist ethics

I should really name this article as “Why I haven’t given up on Buddhism…. yet”. This is my attempt at explaining the most complicated mess carted by the Western media and imperialistic forces that devoured the true Asian history. I have tried to explain the confusion on whether or not Buddhism a religion before. I make that side offline long time ago to make room for the current one. During that period of silence, my philosophical and ethical view on life have not changed. However, I have acquired new skills to explain the unexplainable to most close minded people on planet Earth.

Did you know that world first female Prime Minister was a Buddhist?

Cannot solve world problems, do not hide the facts

Well, I am not going to tell you if Buddhism and associated practices can be considered as religion and religious practices. I have given up on arguing against special interest groups such as UN, NGOs, Governments and individuals. Instead I will lay the facts in a simple point form list. It is up to you, the reader to decide how you should interpret it. At the end I will state my personal interpenetration of the fact which the Western societies trying so hard to alerted for their advantage.

  • Buddhism is older than any form of current organized religion/philosophy.
  • First developed by a man named Siddhartha Gautama over 2600 years ago.
  • Siddhartha Gautama called himself, Buddha which implies his teachings were “Buddhism”.
  • Buddha refuted and disagree with almost ALL forms of religious propaganda in 528 BCE including beliefs in mythical figure god(s).
  • Buddhists have been misrepresented and prosecuted for simply refused to follow a mythical figure, god by people from almost all forms of religious backgrounds.
  • It was the European imperialistic communities and the American CIA that classified Buddhism as a religion. In fact, most people in the Buddhist communities knew nothing about “rules” and “laws” that typically found in religions until the Western propaganda and media arrived in early 18 century.
  • Buddhists are generally not anti-god, but anti-blind believers. Refuse everything and anything unless otherwise a prof is provided.
  • Buddhism do not have rules, but principles. It also lacks punishment, but has consequences. For example, if you kill someone for fun, and now you cannot sleep at night because you get nightmares, that’s not punishment, it is a consequence of your actions. Did you know more than 90% of Americans and Canadians who own guys fear others more than those who don’t?
  • Buddha was against covert conversion. He has refused to teach Buddhism to selected people such as young children who cannot make decisions for themselves.
  • Buddha have refused to teach Buddhism on a grounds of wars. In other words, he has held back information that later turns out to be true to prevent conflicts. Even today Buddhist communities do this.
  • Yes it is true, Buddhist psychological warfare can be more detrimental than the strength of entire NATO Forces. There are incidences in the modern history in which CIA and SIS senior officers have been driven to suicide for killing Buddhist monks in South Asia.
  • Just because you practice Buddhism or visit the temple often, doesn’t make you a Buddhist.
  • Buddhism place a significant weight on ethics and moral values that if you want to be a Buddhist, then behave like one!
  • You cannot organize mass communities to commit harmful acts in Buddhism communities (et. terrorism), not because Buddhists are incapable of attacks, but because the standards of ethics are much stronger. It is difficult to a criminal to convert a Buddhist child into a criminal suicide bomber.
  • Yes, Buddhists fight wars. Sometimes bloody wars and they often ended up winning too.
  • Christians and Hindus have killed more Buddhists than the modern day so called “terrorism” which is coined AFTER September 11, 2011.
  • Yes, Buddhists can have sex before marriage, perform abortions, receive an abortion, get married to one or million, etc. Social issues like these are not suppose to be part of the original form of Buddhism. However, Buddhism has guidelines if followed, abortion for example can be considered as bad Karma.
  • Most Buddhists texts have been Scientifically carbon dated by the British, Japanese and the Germans.
  • Yes, Buddhists can eat meat, kill animals, drink alcohol. That’s mean nothing to Buddhism because it has no rules. However, consequences comes with them are generally considered negative by the Buddha.
  • Buddhist is extremely pro-feminist. Buddhists are more for equal rights than any other group in the history. Did you know that world first female Prime Minister was a Buddhist? Did you know that most Buddhist women were Engineers in 13-centurty when European women were sex slaves to their husbands and fathers? Why don’t you read that in your so called “democratically created” Canadian social studies textbooks?
  • Original Buddhism (Indian) is/was 100% against materialism and capitalism.
  • Buddhists develop ethics by long term practice, not by rules.
  • It is proven without an issue that Buddhist meditations can significantly increase satisfaction in social and academic life.
  • Buddhism is not against religions, but it is against the idea of creationism.
  • Not not all Buddhists are the same. In fact, like religions, you will find so many different forms of divisions within Buddhism.

Well I can write more… these are few of the facts that most people either are too ignorant to admit or very misinformed by the Western propaganda.

Benefits outweigh the risks

religion is a treat to my Science

Being labeled as a “religious nut” or and “anti-creationist” could cause a lot of headcheese to some people. The best example of these labeling causing a wide spread misunderstandings would be the perception of Sri Lankan Buddhists in the Western world. The Christian extremism in the Government of Canada for example goes unnoticed while most media would point the finger against the Buddhist communities. This often overshadow all the good deeds Buddhists have contributed to the society.

I have experienced both positive and negative discrimination because the Buddhist ethics I acquired over time do get noticed by others. One of the well known fact is that Buddhist people have the best, if not one of the best form of work and relationship ethics. I have received recommendations for my work ethics from EVERY SINGLE company and institution I worked for in my entire life.

Finally I had enough… You can call me whatever you want. What really matter is what you think of yourself. By that logic, I consider myself as a non-believer or an atheist. I am glad that Buddhism mostly agrees with the Evolutionary Theory. In fact, I can safety say Buddhism has contributed to the modern day Evolutionary Theory. No, I do not consider Buddhism a religion nor that I am religious. I hate god and the very idea of religion is a treat to my Science. However, I personally found the benefits of Buddhist practices such as meditation and work ethics translate well into Canadian and other first world societies. The ethical and moral values of Buddhism cannot be replaced by any other system (It does not mean other systems are bad). While others my imitate over the years (eg. Christian Mediation), it is difficult to duplicate the same benefits by stripping “Buddhism” from “Buddhist ethics”.

Ordinary tech heroes

The dictionary definition for the term hero reads; a person who, in the opinions of others, has heroic qualities or has performed heroic acts and is regarded as a ideal or model for the rest of the community. The classical definition implies that you know the person well enough to identify the hero. If you research any civilization, almost all heroes are popular characters with very unique social statuses. In this Information Age, not all leaders have the desire to be famous. But all great heroes from the history to the present have similar stories to tell.

..it is hypocritical for organizations like FoxNews, CNN and even BBC to criticize the lack of education and/or high moral backgrounds of people like Edward Joseph Snowden, while at the same time the workers in these media giants use iPhones made by a college dropout, Mr. Steve Jobs and Microsoft Windows OS made by Mr. Bill Gates who never passed a programming course.

They haven’t changed

In modern Information (technological) Age, often we disregard our history because we think the history is irrelevant. From my opinion, it is the opposite.

In 2013, most of the news in Canada has been dominated by privacy issues. Our increasing dependencies on technology has lead to redefining the term privacy. The key players in this privacy wars have both supporters and opposers. Just like in World War I or the French Revolution, a hero to some may be a villain to the others. Bradley Edward Manning and Julian Paul Assange are examples of modern day heroes or villains. Regardless if this is the 1800s or the 21-century, there is always a conflict between what is considered good and what is considered evil. The history has repeated itself and nothing much has changed. The only difference between the war lords like the Alexander the Great or the King Asoka and the modern tech world lords is the medium in which they fight. Unlike in the old days, it is not always clear what we are fighting for because the causes are often complex and dynamic. I think this is why most people are unaware of the growing problems in the modern world.

Birth of the IT heroes

Today in 2013 a Computer Engineer or a student with access to a network can cause more damage to a country than a nuclear weapon. From stock markets, educational systems, banking system all the way to the private family databases have been digitized. While it provides faster access to information, it has also significantly altered the way we fight. The same network and database that provide information on your family history like ancestry.ca can also be used to track you down by your enemies. The same fail proof DNA evidence is used in trials have been linked to wrongfully convicting innocent people.

You could be a 10 year old or a 90 year old with access to a high speed Internet connection. You could have no friends or lots of friends outside of the “networked world”. You could have Facebook and Twitter accounts or you may never had one at all. You could be formally educated as a network and computer specialist or you could be someone who never passed a single high school course. It does not matter who you are, we all can be tech heroes. I came across stories in which 90 year old using a mobile phone took pictures of a bank robbery in progress and called the police at the same time. The group of unorganized individuals known as the “Anonymous hackers” includes people as young as 10 years old.

Side note on the background of people. I found it is hypocritical for organizations like FoxNews, CNN and even BBC to criticize the lack of education and/or high moral backgrounds of people like Edward Joseph Snowden, while at the same time the workers in these media giants use iPhones made by a college dropout, Mr. Steve Jobs and Microsoft Windows OS made by Mr. Bill Gates who never passed a programming course.

To some this is a great opportunity to be a hero while to others this is a great time to be a criminal. It all depends on how you use the technology, for what purpose and what is defined as “good” and “evil”.

What is good for the society?

Who should decide what is good for our civilization? The Governments run by handful of people? The tech heroes which include people with hidden evil intentions? The large data mining companies like Google or Amazon? These are valid philosophical and logical questions we should ask ourselves. Even if we answered them who will keep these in checked and balanced? In my opinion, this will be a never ending war. Unlike the French Revolution or the World War I and II, this tech war will have much larger impact on our civilization. While you could argue that this is not as fast and violent as “traditional wars”, I can counter argue with the increased dependency on technology, we would only need a single mad person to push that button to explode a nuclear missile.

Introduction to Modern Warfare

Israel use of banned chemical weapons
Israel use of banned chemical weapons

I do not think that I have to explain to my readers who are Bradley Edward Manning and Julian Paul Assange. They became famous for WikiLeaks which released large databases containing US Government’s criminal activities around the world. They have been viewed as enemies in some politicians (who probably couldn’t even connect a computer to a projector), while others have hailed them as heroes. Either way they are only two out millions of tech heroes.

Edward Joseph Snowden is another leader in the tech war. He exposed the NSA (National criminal Security Agency) operations involving spying on multimillion droller trade deals for American companies like Microsoft and Google and spying on US citizens. Too bad the modern media controlled by the few Zionist elites do not want to publish the US spying on trade deals eh?

The group of highly unorganized tech experts known by their umbrella name “Anonymous hackers” have been exposing corruptions in Governments and Private Companies. They have also forced powerful people (similar to A. Hitler) in modern companies to step down. They have also fought for the rights of civilian victims, which otherwise have no voice to promote justice. I am not going to say if they are good or bad, but if you would like to read their projects like Occupy Wall Street, Child Pornography crack down or Rehtaeh Parsons operation, ironically Google Search is your friend.

There are other small cases such as murders like Derek Medina of Miami posting messages on Facebook admitting to killing his wife or police officers being questioned (and often not changed) after digital video evidence recorded by civilians (and even their own other officers) indicate abuse of power. The best example of this in Canada is the Robert Dziekański Taser incident which created a ripple effect in the RCMP (Royal Canadian Male-only Police). How about those RCMP male officers groping female officers or even raping them by forcing them to have sex while on duty?

Aftermath Boston Marathon explosions
Aftermath of Boston Marathon explosions

Yes there are good examples from conventional type wars. The video and photographic evidence of modern wars such as the ones in Middle East have disputed the official accounts. The use of banned chemical weapons by Israel Army OR the use of lynching of Black men by Nazis are great example of conventional hate spilling over to the tech world. Let’s not forget about the the role of technological age in Abu Ghraib prison scandal photos. I did not know US Army had sluts until I came across those images. The Boston Marathon bombings civilian video surveillance is another example of bad guys being tracked using technologies.

Bangalore : Karnataka Cooperation Minister Lakshman Savadi seen watching porn.
Bangalore : Karnataka Cooperation Minister Lakshman Savadi seen watching porn.

With mobile devices ethics of using it also can be come in to question. The Women and Child Welfare Minister CC Patil and the Co-operative Minister Laxman Savadi (BJP) of India have been cought watching pornography during the Assebly in Benglauru. While this is nothing illegal in India or even in Canada, it brings the spotlight to ethics of technology and how we use it. The irony in this particular case is the abuse of technology is proven by another technology; the TV broadcast of political proceedings in India.

Back to the basics

May be the solution for those who would like to secure data is to going back to the old technologies. The reason Sub.-Lt. Jeffrey Paul Delisle of the Canadian military was able to copy data from secure servers in Canada to a USB drive and hand information over to Russia, is because our data on military intelligence have been digitized in recent years. After the incident, I was researching on the history of spying and realized may be physically writing down non-time critical data is not a bad idea. Think about it, if you only keep the essential data and services on digital format, it would be at least bit difficult for someone to copy the data. While it is still not fail-proof, at least it would be better than the current system of digital encryption. In old days spies are trained to memorize information not copy information on a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant, now known as Smartphones or Mobile Computing Devices). This will completely eliminate the need for secure networks all together.

In my opinion, separating data networks from one another is another way to combat security issues. If you have a NAS (Network Attached Storage) with family pictures, why not simply separate the entire Internet LAN (Local Area Network) connections from the NAS connections? This will still give you the access to data on your home network while blocking all access from outside. It may not be an ideal solution for some, since you cannot access your data from outside the house, but still provide much better security than an encrypted password.

Democrazy to democracy

The point is the complications of tech world goes on and on…and in this technological age, it is difficult for anyone to keep secrets from everyone. After all, when even the authorities commit crimes, I do not see a problem in civilians taking actions to protect their community form crime and abuse. However the accountability knife should be able to cut on both ends. Both the criminals and the heroes should be held accountable for their actions. It is scary to say that it is difficult for us to keep track on who is watching whom. With billions of people with access to technology, the power has truly shifted from “democrazy” to true “democracy”.

Paleobiological Hierarchy

This page is best viewed in desktop mode. If you are using a mobile device, you can switch to desktop site using the switch link at the bottom of the page. Additional tools are available under Geology 491 – Paleobiology and the identification steps chart here. For more in-depth detailed information on how we classify the following fossils, please read, Classification of Fossils.

Help improve this page with YOUR photos of lab samples

I am unable to post pictures of lab samples. As such please submit your pictures to this page using server – at – sanuja.net email. I am willing to provide credits for your work! Just let me know if you would like to see your name on the site.

Kingdoms (largest divisions)

  • Bacteria
  • Protista
  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Fungi


Note: The classifications used by the University of Calgary may differ from the materials on Wikipedia and other sources. This list is NOT specific to UofC classes such as 391/491. However, this may be used for reducing confusion.

You may find this chart of fossils based on their age useful. You may download them in image format and PDF format. Go save as for download.

Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum Porifera
    • Class Stromatoporata
      • Genus Stromatoporoids (figure)
    • Phylum Archaeocyatha
    • Phylum Cnidaria
      • Class Anthozoa
        • Sub Class Zoantharia
          • Order Tabulata OrdovicianPermian
            • Genus Catenipora (image1 | image2 | image3 | figure) OrdovicianSilurian
              Chain coral; looks like links on a chain. The cross sectional view is usually have flat lines.
            • Genus Favosites (image1 | image2 | figure) OrdovicianDevonian
              Not to be confused with G: Lithostrotion and G: Hexagonaria. Honeycomb coral; closely packed polygonal and tubular structures. The center of each polygon has a slight depression while the longitudinal sides should have tiny “holes”.
            • Genus Heliolites (figure) SilurianDevonian
              Tubular structures. The cop view will most likely seen as somewhat circular “dots” (but they are actually shaped like flowers”).
            • Genus Syringopora (image1 | image2 | image3 | figure) SilurianPennsylvanian
              Small tubes often in mm in diameter. Often braches and looks like “worms”, “spaghetti” or “string of poop”. Highly concave (saggy) tabulae can be observed on thin section.
          • Order Rugosa OrdovicianPermian
            • Genus Heliophyllum (image1 | image2 | image3 | figure) Lower – Mid Devonian
              If the sample is a complete one, the external shape is look like a “horn”. The inside of structures should have striations which may appear as a floor like from the top cross sectional view.
            • Genus Lithostrotion (image1 | image2 | image3 | figure) MississippianPennsylvanian = Carboniferous
              Not to be confused with G: Favosites and G: Hexagonaria. They looks very similar due to polygonal shape. However, this is NOT closely (“tightly”) packed compared to G: Favosites. They also usually have 2-3 rows of dissepiments and have domed (curved) the tabulae (better to observe on thin section).
            • Genus Hexagonaria (image1 | image2 | image3 | image4) Devonian
              6-8 rows of dissepiments is a unique feature (slide or thin section is better for observation). Colonial life form with flat tabulae.
          • Order Scleractinia (image | figure) TriassicHolocene = Modern day
            Top view may looks like a mafia cut out human brain. But individually they should look like “pellets” of hamster poop. They add the septas in cycles in which each cycle consist of “in-between” additions. For example, if I am a Scleractinia type guy, I would add 6 first then, 6 + 6 + 12 + 12 + 24 + …
    • Phylum Brachiopoda
      • Class Inarticulata (Lingulata)
        • Order Lingulida
            • Genus Lingula (image1 | image2 | image3 | figure) OrdovicianHolocene
              Spatulate Valves with pedicle are placed between the two shells. Should be able to observe elliptical growth lines extending longitudinally on the surface of the shell.
      • Class Articulata
        • Order Terebratulida (image1 | image2 | figure) DevonianHolocene
          Biconvex shape and has large circular/semi-circular pedicle opening. Curved hingeline (look at the side view). The pedicle itself is often not preserved in the fossil record.
          • Genus Oleneothyris (image)
            Note the zig-zag commissure.
        • Order Spiriferida
            • Genus Atrypa (image | figure) SilurianDevonian
            • Genus Cyrtina () SilurianPermian
            • Genus Mucrospirifer (figure) Mid Devonian
              A distinct straight hinge line with a very large delthyrium (triangular shape in the middle). Biconvex shells with very well defined costae. Note this is used in labs as an example for Order Spiriferida.
            • Genus Paraspirifer () Lower – Mid Devonian
        • Order Orthida
        • Order Pentamerida
        • Order Rhynchonellida
        • Order Strophomenida
          • Sub Order Strophomenioina
          • Sub Order Productina
            • Genus Dictyoclostus (image | figure) Mississippian
              Spines (spike like). Chubby fat guy.
    • Phylum Bryozoa
      • Order Cyclostomata
      • Order Cheilostomata
      • Order Fenestrata
        • Genus Fenestella (image) OrdovicianPermian
        • Genus Archimedes (image1 | image2) MississippianPermian
          Screw like zooarium.
      • Order Trepostomata
        • Genus Hallopora (image1 | image2) OrdovicianDevonian
        • Genus Prasopora () Ordovician
    • Phylum Helmichordata
      • Class Graptolithina
        • Order Denoroidea
          • Genus Rhabdinopora (image | figure) Upper Cambrian – Lower Carboniferous
        • Order Graptoloidea
          • Genus Teragraptus (image) Lower Ordovician
            Also can be found in horizontal type in which it the organism looks like a cross/crossing branches. Uniserial variety.
          • Genus Phyllograptus () Lower Ordovician
          • Genus Didymograptus (image) Lower – Upper Ordovician
          • Genus Climacograptus (image | figure) Lower Ordovician
          • Genus Orthograptus (figure) Upper OrdovicianLower Silurian
          • Genus Monograptus (image) Lower SilurianLower Devonian
            Found in both straight and spiral formations.
          • Genus Cyrtograptus (image1 | image2 | figure) Mid Silurian
    • Phylum Chordata (Species Vertebrata (Cranrata))
      • Class Conodonta
        • Genus Streptognathodus (image) Lower PennsylvanianLower Permian
        • Genus Neogondolella () PermianTriassic
        • Genus Polygnathus (image) Lower DevonianLower Mississippian
        • Genus Palmatolepis (image) Upper Devonian
    • Phylum Arthropoda
      • Class Crustacea
        • Sub Class Ostracoda
      • Class Trilobita
        • Order Agnostida
        • Order Phacopida
          • Genus Calymene (figure) Lower SilurianMid Devonian
          • Genus Phacops () SilurianDevonian
        • Order Redlichiida
          • Genus Olenellus (figure) Lower Cambrian
        • Order Ptychoparida
          • Genus Trinucleus (figure) Ordovician
          • Genus Isotelus (figure) Mid – Upper Ordovician
        • Order Proetida (not on exams?)
        • Order Corynexochida (not on exams?)
      • Class Chelicerata
          • Genus Eurypterus
    • Phylum Mollusca
      • Class Gastropoda
        • Genus Bellerophon () OrdovicianTriassic
          T = 0 with involute planispiral coiling. Often find with ribs but with no sutures.
        • Genus Maclurites () Ordovician
          Low T, but not zero. With exceptions to few, almost always found as an internal mold. No sutures and it is trochospiral.
        • Genus Turritella () OligoceneHolocene
          Very very high T and therefore have an elongation along the trochospiral coiling. Dexutual coil.
      • Class Polyplacophora
      • Class Bivalvia
        • Genus Trigonia (figure) TriassicCretaceous
          Schizodont dentition. Curved hingeline. However, you may find fossils without the curved edges due to preservation conditions.
        • Genus Inoceramus (figure) JurassicCretaceous
          Very strong rugae.
        • Genus Mya (figure) OligoceneHolocene
          Spoon-shaped chondrophore.
        • Genus Mercenaria OligoceneHolocene
          Looks very similar to Genus Mya, but lacks the spoon-shaped chondrophore.
        • Genus Exogyra (figure) JurassicCretaceous
          Trochospirak with high translation (coiling out).
        • Genus Gryphaea (figure)
          Similar to Genus Exogyra but it is planispiral hence it curves inwards (“devil’s finger”).
        • Genus Pecten (figure) EoceneHolocene
          Very strong ribs. Auricles (wing-shaped) on both sides for swimming. The larger aurticle points to the anterior direction.
        • Genus Rudistid () Cretaceous
          Not to be confused with corals or bryozoans. Small lids which covers to tops are often missing from lab samples.
      • Class Scaphopoda
      • Class Cephalopoda
        • Sub Class Nautiloidea
          • Genus Euterphoceras
          • Genus Nautilus (figure) OligoceneHolocene
        • Sub Class Actinoceratoidea
        • Sub Class Endoceratoidea
        • Sub Class Bactritoidea
          • Genus Bactrites () DevonianPermian
        • Sub Class Ammonoidea
          • Order Goniatitida
            • Genus Tornoceras () Devonian
            • Genus Goniatites () Mississippian
          • Order Ceratitida
            • Genus Ceratites () Mid Triassic
          • Order Ammonitida
            • Genus Dactylioceras () Lower Jurassic
            • Genus Harpoceras () Lower Jurassic
            • Genus Baculites () Upper Cretaceous
            • Genus Scaphites () Upper Cretaceous
        • Sub Class Coleoidea
          • Genus Belemnites (figure) JurassicCretaceous
    • Phylum Echinodermata
      • Class Asteroidea
        • Genus “Starfish” (figure)
          Five fold ( pentameral) symmetry. A good example of a living fossil. Well defined body wall and sometimes the central five side disc may be observed in the center.
      • Class Blastoidea
        • Genus Pentremites (figure) MississippianPennsylvanian = Carboniferous
          Small structures that looks like wrapping around a small ball. The five fold ( pentameral) body is often covered in a “cap” shaped external structure.
      • Class Crinoidea
      • Class Echinoidea
        • Genus Micraster (figure) Upper Cretaceous
        • Genus Dendraster (figure) PlioceneHolocene
          Dome (“circular”) shaped overall structure. Flower like appearance on the surface. Very good example of five-fold radial symmetry on the cross sectional body.
      • Class Edrioasteroid
        • Genus Isorophus () Mid – Upper Ordovician
      • Class Erhombifera (“ctriuds”)
        • Genus Strobilocystites () Mid – Upper Devonian
          Looks like a pellet of poop. Not to be confused with Genus Pentremites. Small dotted “ball” like structures within the five fold star like physical frame.

    Kingdom Protista

    • Phylum Chrysophyta
      • Sub Class Rhizopoda
        • Order Foraminiferida
            • Genus Textularia () PennsylvanianPlioceneHolocene
            • Genus Globorotalia () PlioceneHolocene
            • Genus Globigerina () PlioceneHolocene
          • Sub Order Fusulinina
            • Genus Schwagerinid wall () Upper PennsylvanianMid Permian

    Why won’t you publish digital photos of the lab samples? Unfortunately I am a member of the Faulty of Science since June 2013. As a result, I am not allow to publish images of lab samples on my site. However, if you would like to have images here, please email your images to me so I can post them on this site. Sorry for the inconvenience.

    How does this colour scheme work? Oh well… like this
    Holocene = Modern day

    Thank You

    Felicia MacMurchy, Kathleen Nester, Pulkit Sabharwal and Laura A McCowan, University of Calgary (Undergraduate Students)