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Geology 491 Midterm II-University of Calgary-Basic

Question 1
What is the age of oldest organic matter?
A
~ 2.7 billion years
B
~ 4.5 billion years
C
~ 3.2 billion years
D
~ 3.8 billion years
Question 2
Medusa stage of the organism in Phylum Cnidaria is characterized by asexual reproduction.
A
False
B
True
Question 3
Which of the following Metazoans have?
A
Specialized organs
B
Lungs
C
Specialized tissues
D
Primitive organs
Question 4
What is the evolutionary existence of Order Tabulata in Subclass Zoantharia?
A
Cretaceous
B
Ordovician
C
Permian
D
Cambrian
Question 5
This particular Order of organisms are very large ( above 10 cm) compared to others in the subphylum Rhynchonelliformea. They have no pedicle opening but ornamented with spines that cut across their shells.
A
Strophomenida
B
Productida
C
Atrypida
D
Terebratulida
E
Rhynchonellida
Question 6
Take the odd one out for the correct given reason.

Tabulata, Rugosa, Scleractinia

A
Tabulata, because it is the only one that forms corals.
B
Rugosa, because we also can find them today.
C
Tabulata, because we can also find them today.
D
Scleractinia, because we can also find them today.
Question 7
The fossil record have well preserved evidence on biochemical evolution of early Earth.
A
True
B
False
Question 7 Explanation: 
Very hard to find evidence for this but the Isua Formation of the southwestern Greenland help us out.
Question 8
Organisms in Order Productida have one of the largest pedicle openings in the Phylum Brachiopoda.
A
True
B
False
Question 8 Explanation: 
They have no pedicle opening.
Question 9
Rank the following Orders from Subphylum Rhynchonelliformea based on the first occurrence in lithology (oldest to youngest).

I. Strophomenida
II. Productida
III. Orthida
IV. Rhynchonellida
V. Spiriferida
VI. Terebratulida

A
(oldest) III > V > IV > I > II > VI (youngest)
B
(oldest) III > I > IV > V > II > VI (youngest)
C
(oldest) I > IV > III > V > II > VI (youngest)
D
(oldest) I > V > III > IV > II > VI (youngest)
E
(oldest) I > IV > V > III > II > VI (youngest)
Question 10
When was the last occurrence of Ediacaran fossils in the lithology?
A
~ 400 million years ago
B
~ 430 million years ago
C
~ 500 million years ago
D
~ 460 million years ago
E
~ 510 million years ago
Question 11
Which of the following Ediacara dominant fossils can grow into as large as 2 m long structures?
A
Charnia
B
Parvancorina
C
Dickinsonia
D
Tribrachidium
Question 12
Term Primordial soup (1924, Alexander Oparin of USSR) describes a mixture of living organic matter and biochemicals.
A
False
B
True
Question 12 Explanation: 
While it is True that Alexander Oparin did come up with the concept, the Primordial soup is a mixture of matter cad chemicals which are NON-LIVING!
Question 13
All of the following Orders/Subphylums may have ancestral connections to Subphylum Linguliformea, except…
A
Order Strophomenida
B
Order Orthida
C
Subphylum Craniiformea
D
Order Pentamerida
Question 14
This is where the oldest evidence for existence of cyanobacteria is found.
A
Apex Chert from Western Australia
B
Isua Formation in SW Greenland
Hint:
Only traces of it found here; NOT strong evidence.
C
Crater rocks from Moon, Mercury and Mars
D
Gunflint Formation from Ontario
Question 15
Which of the following statements describes hermatypic corals?
A
They are solitary corals and lives in low energy environments.
B
They are reef-builders and are colonial.
C
They are highly concentrated with cyanobacteria.
D
They are a Suborder of Order Rugosa.
Question 16
What is the primary driving force behind the early crust formation of Earth?
A
Mixing of gases from two independent sources.
B
Precipitation of minerals due to extraction of water.
C
Temperature difference between hot Earth and the cold space.
D
Convection currents and magmatic processes.
Question 17
Metazoans have a circulatory system.
A
True
B
False
Question 18
The Parvancorina organism have no second outer wall.
A
True
B
False
Question 19
When did the Strophomenida (in the Subphylum Rhynchonelliformea) went extinct?
A
During Frasnian/Famennian crisis
B
During Cretaceous/Paleogene crisis
C
During Permian/Triassic crisis
D
During Ordovician/Silurian crisis
Question 20
Which of the following Orders from Subphylum Rhynchonelliformea have weak evidence to either prove or disprove their first evolutionary existence due to lack of evidence?

– Strophomenida
– Productida
– Orthida
– Pentamerida
– Rhynchonellida
– Atrypida
– Spiriferida
– Terebratulida

A
Orthida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida
B
Atrypida and Productida
C
Orthida and Terebratulida
D
Spiriferida and Terebratulida
E
Atrypida, Productida and Pentamerida
Question 21
Order Productida belongs to Phylum Brachiopoda evolved in ___.
A
Early Cretaceous
B
Upper Ordovician
C
Upper Devonian
D
Lower Cambrian
Question 22
What is the function of nematocysts cells in Phylum Cnidaria?
A
Building the structures to hold the corals to the seabed (skeleton).
B
Distribution of organic materials throughout the body structure (circulatory).
C
Discharging poison into a pray (feeding).
D
Processing water to extract dissolved oxygen (respiratory).
Question 23
Which part of the modern (Recent) Stromatolites do not have any living or non-living bacteria?
A
Stromatolite mass
B
Growth surface
C
Oxygen-depleted zone
D
Undermat
Question 24
What type of Brachidium illustrated by figure D?
paleo_brachidium_type
A
Spiriferid
B
Zygospirid
C
Atrypid
D
Terebratulid
Question 25
In Phylum Brachiopoda, notothyrium is found on __I__ , which is united with delthyrium on __II__.
A
I. umbo
II. the beak
B
I. Brachial valve
II. Pedicle valve
C
I. Pedicle valve
II. Brachial valve
D
I. the beak
II. umbo
Question 26
Typically Brachiopod shell would have how many planes of symmetry?
A
2
B
1
C
3
D
4
Question 27
Which of the following Orders of Subphylum Rhynchonelliformea went extinct at Frasnian – Famennian crisis?
A
Productida
B
Pentamerida
C
Orthida
D
Atrypida
Hint:
This is near the boundary NOT at the.
E
Terebratulida
Question 28
The earliest shelly (exoskeleton) organisms were found in what stratigraphic period/era?
A
Mesoarchean
B
Paleozoic
C
Neoproterozoic
D
Ediacaran
E
Cambrian
Question 29
In Order Trepostomata (Phylum Bryozoans; Class Stenolaemata), how many types of pores can be found?
A
three
B
five
C
two
D
six
Question 29 Explanation: 
They are autopores, mesopores and acanthopores.
Question 30
Which of the following classes have the most variability?
A
Class Scyphozoa
B
Class Hydrozoa
C
Class Cinclaire
D
Class Anthozoa
Question 30 Explanation: 
The Class Anthozoa have over 6000 species.
Question 31
What type of Brachidium illustrated by figure B?
paleo_brachidium_type
A
Zygospirid
B
Atrypid
C
Spiriferid
D
Terebratulid
Question 32
Formation of the iron-rich layers in the banded iron formation happens during the volcanic events.
A
True
B
False
Question 33
What is the only order that includes both solitary and colonial Cnidarians?
A
Order Septalata
B
Order Scleractinia
C
Order Tabulata
D
Order Rugosa
Question 34
Which type of organisms dominated the oldest stromatolites? (choose the best answer)
A
Stromatoporoids
B
Dikinsonians
C
Cyanobacteria
D
Rugose corals
Question 34 Explanation: 
You may argue for Stromatoporoids, but it is not the best option listed here.
Question 35
Based on fossils found in Europe, Russia and North America, how many stages in the Lower Cambrian?
A
5
B
3
C
2
D
4
Question 36
One of the major crisis that occurred between these two periods.
A
Cambrian and Ordovician
B
Jurassic and Cretaceous
C
Cretaceous and Paleogene
D
Carboniferous and Permian
Question 37
What is the dominant material/substance found in Isua Formation?
A
Volcanic lava
B
Dolomite based minerals
C
Graphite
D
Calcite based minerals
Question 38
The first minerals were formed ______ after the formation of Earth.
A
4.0 billion years after
B
0.8 billion years after
C
0.2 billion years after
D
1.5 billion years after
Question 38 Explanation: 
Age of Earth is about 4.6 bya and the oldest known mineral is about 4.4 bya
Question 39
Class Stenolaemata only adapted to marine environments.
A
False
B
True
Question 40
Beak of a Brachiopod shell is found in brachial valve.
A
False
B
True
Question 41
All known Ediacaran fossils can be categorized into what type of fossil group?
A
Carbonizations
B
Mineralization
C
Recrystallization
D
Impressions
Question 42
What is the highest complexity in bryozoan architecture?
A
zooecia
B
zooid
C
zooarium
D
zooarozoida
Question 43
When was the first occurrence of Ediacaran fossils in the lithology?
A
~ 410 million years ago
B
~ 500 million years ago
C
~ 585 million years ago
D
~ 510 million years ago
E
~ 470 million years ago
Question 44
Global spread of Stromatolites began in which of the following era?
A
Neoarchean
B
Hadean
C
Phanerozoic
D
Proterozoic
E
Archean
Question 45
One of the best evidence for prokaryote diversification is found in Gunflint Formation.
A
True
B
False
Question 46
What is the primary function of the organ lophophore?
A
Feeding
B
Circulatory
C
Defense/attack
D
Movement
Question 47
The oldest fossils on Earth were discovered in which lithologic formation/unit?
A
Delta calcitic unit.
B
Isua Fm.
C
Apex Chert unit.
D
Banded Iron Fm.
Question 48
How old is the Isua Formation?
A
About 4.2 billion years.
B
About 2.5 billion years.
C
About 3.2 billion years.
D
About 3.8 billion years.
Question 48 Explanation: 
…and was found in Greenland.
Question 49
In Order Rugosa __I__ septum does not have other septa attached to it while __II__ septum has several order septae attached to them.
A
I. counter
II. cardinal
B
I. counter lateral
II. lateral
C
I. lateral
II. counter lateral
D
I. cardinal
II. counter
Question 50
Which is the only period bounded by two major crisis?
A
Triassic
B
Ordovician
C
Cretaceous
D
Permian
Question 51
The horizontal curved plates that subdivide the zooecia in Order Trepostomata known as diaphragms.
A
False because they are known as cystiphragms.
B
False because they are known as cups.
C
True
D
False because they are known as plates.
Question 52
Order the following lithological items from oldest to the youngest.

I. Stromatolites numerical reduction
II. Apex Chert unit
III. Gunflint Formation
IV. Fig Tree Formation
V. Isua Formation
VI. Shark Bay stromatolites

A
(oldest) V > IV > II > I > III > VI (youngest)
B
(oldest) VI > III > IV > II > I > V (youngest)
C
(oldest) V > II > IV > III > I > VI (youngest)
D
(oldest) VI > II > IV > III > I > V (youngest)
E
(oldest) II > V > IV > III > I > VI (youngest)
Question 53
Oldest rocks from Earth are dated back to as far as ___
A
Paleozoic
B
Paleoproterozoic
C
Hadean
D
Neoarchean
E
Eoarchean
Question 54
Ahermatypic corals includes are non-reefbuilding species.
A
True
B
False because they are both reef-builders and non-reefbuilders.
C
False, because they are reef-builders.
Question 55
What type of organisms abundant in Tommotian fauna?
A
Invertebrates organisms
B
Eukaryotic organisms
C
Shelly organisms
D
Prokaryotic organisms
Question 55 Explanation: 
It is a division of Lower Cambrian.
Question 56
Which of the following lithological unit associated with the first evidence of prokaryote diversification?
A
Gunflint Formation
B
Shark Bay stromatolites
C
Fig Tree Formation
D
Apex Chert unit
E
Isua Formation
Question 57
What type of Brachidium illustrated by figure A?
paleo_brachidium_type
A
Spiriferid
B
Atrypid
C
Zygospirid
D
Terebratulid
Question 58
The evolutionary existence of Order Fenestrata occurred in ___.
A
Ordovician
B
Jurassic
C
Cambrian
D
Permian
Question 59
Which of the following Ediacara organisms have raised arms and borders in a disk-shaped triradially symmetric body?
A
Parvancorina
B
Spriggina
C
Tribrachidium
D
Charnia
Question 60
Organisms in Phylum Brachiopoda are mostly (not all) benthic.
A
True
B
False
Question 61
When did the first evolution of multicellular organisms occur?
A
Neoarchean
B
Mesoproterozoic
C
Neoproterozoic
D
Cambrian
Question 62
In Order Trepostomata, the term ____ is used to describe plates that subdivide zooecia.
A
cystiphragm
B
lamellate
C
autopore
D
tabule
Question 62 Explanation: 
Remember diaphragms if straight and cystiphragms if curved.
Question 63
Which of the following shell morphology is associated with very primitive functions?
A
Pseudopunctate shell
B
Punctate shell
C
Having a one large and one small shell.
D
Impunctate shell
Question 64
Which of the following eukaryotic organism have outer structures made of organic materials and sometimes be agglutinated?
A
Bangiomorpha
B
Melanocyrillium
C
Torridonophycus
D
Huronipora
Question 65
The Isua Formation most likely occurred under a reducing environmental conditions.
A
False
B
True
Question 66
When is the evolutionary existence of Class Stenolaemata (Phylum Bryozoa)?
A
Cambrian
B
Cretaceous
C
Devonian
D
Ordovician
Question 67
This Order of organisms evolved after the Permian-Triassic crisis.
A
Order Heterocoralia
B
Order Tabulata
C
Order Scleractinia
D
Order Rugosa
Question 68
Modern day stromatolites (Recent) indicates __I__ components and __II__ is populated by anaerobic (100 % of the life cycle) bacteria.
A
I. four (4)
II. Undermat
B
I. four (4)
II. Oxygen-depleted zone
C
I. four (4)
II. Stromatolite mass
D
I. six (6)
II. Oxygen-depleted zone
E
I. four (4)
II. Undermat
Question 69
Which of the following Brachiopod growth type would result in equal growth in all directions?
A
Radiocircular
B
Sphericalcircular
C
Mixoperipheral
D
Holoperipheral
E
Hemipheripheral
Question 70
What is the Tommotian fauna/why is it important?
A
The earliest abundant shelly fauna that evolved on Earth.
B
The first type of fauna to process oxygen from atmosphere.
C
Oldest known fossils were found in this formation.
D
The first organisms to release oxygen to the atmosphere.
Question 71
The earliest evolution of pseudopunctate shells appeared in which Order of Brachiopods (hint: Subphylum Rhynchonelliformea)?
A
Rhynchonellida
B
Pentamerida
C
Strophomenida
D
Productida
E
Orthida
Question 72
Polyp stage of the organism in Phylum Cnidaria is characterized by sessile habitat because the root-like structures hold them to the seabed.
A
False
B
True
Question 73
Morphologically Terebratulida is one of the most primitive Orders of brachipods.
A
True
B
False
Question 74
What type of Brachidium illustrated by figure C?
paleo_brachidium_type
A
Atrypid
B
Zygospirid
C
Spiriferid
D
Terebratulid
Question 75
Which mineral would you use for dating a rock sample (assume you found all of the following minerals) that would provide the best approximation of time?
A
Calcite – Dolomite
B
Stromatolites
C
Zircon
D
Quartz
Question 76
Which is false about Bryozoans?
A
All Bryozoans have digestive and reproductive systems.
B
All Bryozoans are asexual organisms.
C
All Bryozoans are colonial.
D
All Bryozoans are invertebrates.
Question 77
The evolutionary existence of Order Fenestrata occurred in ___.
A
Jurassic
B
Ordovician
C
Cambrian
D
Neoproterozoic
Question 78
Support for the lophophore is provided by the brachidum (hint: Phylum Brachiopoda).
A
True
B
False
Question 79
Order the following major crises that resulted in shifts in the biological evolution from oldest (first to occur) to youngest.

I. Triassic – Jurassic crisis
II. Cretaceous – Paleogene crisis
III. Ordovician – Silurian crisis
IV. Frasnian – Famennian crisis
V. Permian – Triassic crisis

A
(oldest) I > II > V > III > IV (youngest)
B
(oldest) V > III > IV > II > I (youngest)
C
(oldest) II > IV > V > III > I (youngest)
D
(oldest) III > IV > V > I > II (youngest)
Question 80
Which of the following is the oldest event in Geologic history?
A
Apex Chert unit
B
Isua Formation.
C
Fig Tree Formation
D
Gunflint Formation.
Question 81
Order Spiriferida usually (not always) have pseudopunctate shell structure.
A
True
B
False, because they can be either punctate or impunctate.
C
False, because they always have impunctate shells.
D
False, because they always have punctate shells.
Question 82
In Order Heterocoralia, protoseptum overlaps on metasepta by growing on top of previously formed metasepta.
A
True
B
False
Question 82 Explanation: 
They never overlap on top of each other. They always forms at an offset.
Question 83
What is the stratigraphic range for Order Scleractinia?
A
Cambrian to Permian
B
Ordovician to Recent
C
Triassic to Recent
D
Ordovician to Permian
Question 84
In Order Rugosa how many degrees between the Cardinal septum and Counter septum?
A
60
B
180
C
90
D
45
Question 85
Rank the following Brachiopod Groups in based on the oldest to youngest based on their dominance period in fossil record.

I. Lingulids
II. Spiriferids
III. Pentamerids
IV. Terebratulids

A
(oldest) I > IV> II > III (youngest)
B
(oldest) IV > I > II > III (youngest)
C
(oldest) I > II > IV > III (youngest)
D
(oldest) I > III > II > IV (youngest)
Question 86
Organisms in this order add their septae in sets at 60-degree distance between each.
A
Order Tabulata
B
Order Octocoralia
C
Order Rugosa
D
Order Scleractinia
Question 87
Which of the following organisms Class, Order, Family, Group or Species is the longest on fossil record? (hint: May even exist today!)
A
Productida
B
Linguliformea
C
Orthida
D
Pentamerida
Question 88
Which of the following Ediacara fossil have up to 10 possible appendages with different stages of growth?
A
Dickinsonia
B
Parvancorina
C
Tribrachidium
D
Charnia
Question 89
What is the shell growth type of genus Lingula?
A
Sphereperipheral
B
Holoperiheral
C
Hemiperipheral
D
Mixoperipheral
Question 90
In the Superphylum Lophophorata, __I__ is one of the most frequent fossils phyla and __II__ is one of the less frequent phyla.
A
I. Brachiopoda
II. Enthoprota
B
I. Phoronida
II. Bryozoa
C
I. Phoronida
II. Enthoprota
D
I. Brachiopoda
II. Bryozoa
Question 91
The oldest Stromatolites were found in which formation?
A
Stromato Fm.
B
Banded Iron Fm.
C
Gunflint Fm.
D
Fig Tree Fm.
Question 92
Why catastrophic meteorite bombardment events are rarely preserved on Earth as opposed to Moon, Mercury and Mars?
A
The plate tectonics may have destroyed the evidence.
B
The oceanic water many have changed the landscape of Earth.
C
The crust of the Earth is not ductile enough to deform significantly to provide a record.
D
Earth probably had less bombardments than any other planet.

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