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Geology 491-University of Calgary-Basic


Geology (GLGY 491-UCAL) Midterm I General

Question 1
Pinacocytes and what other type of specialized cells make up the outer lining of a Porifera?
A
Amblyprocts
B
Porocytes
C
Scierocytes
D
Archaeocytes
Question 2
The “Great Dying” is occurred at which boundary?
A
Permian – Triassic
B
Devonian – Silurian
C
Devonian – Carboniferous
D
Carboniferous – Permian
E
Cretaceous – Paleogene
Question 3
Echinoderms have what type of symmetry?
A
Pentameral
B
Radial
C
Spherical
D
Circular
Question 4
What number is used for labeling the central cavity on the following diagram?
paleo_px-Archaeocyatha

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeocyatha.png
A
7
B
1
C
5
D
2
Question 5
What is the oldest period of Mesozoic?
A
Devonian
B
Mississippian
C
Triassic
D
Jurassic
Question 6
Kingdom Protista has produced most advanced forms of organisms.
A
False
B
True
Question 7
Sponges are the simplest multicellular organism found in the stratigraphic evidence from Earth.
A
False
B
True
Question 7 Explanation: 
However, they are the simplest multicellular living organism.
Question 8
Around what time the Hadean ended?
A
541 Ma
B
4030 Ma
C
4560 Ma
D
2500 Ma
Question 9
Recrystallization is an unaltered process of fossilization.
A
True
B
False
Question 10
During this process of fossilization, the soft body parts of organisms were covered with a hard part. Often the hard section is made of calcium carbonates.
A
Canonization
B
Impregnation
C
Recrystallization
D
Moldic fossilization
Question 11
How do we know that Trilobites used molting process for growth?
A
The trace fossils left by the organism during certain growth periods.
B
Abundance in organic matter in some parts of the stratigraphic windows.
C
The lack of exoskeletons in some parts of the stratigraphic windows.
D
Fossils of the organism were found without the exoskeleton.
Hint:
Impossible due to soft body dissolution.
Question 12
__I__ is older than Jurassic and __II__ younger than Cretaceous.
A
I. Permian
II. Neogene
B
I. Permian
II. Devonian
Question 13
Radiolaria one of the hardest hit due to Great Dying event.
A
True
B
False
Question 13 Explanation: 
Almost all of the Radiolarians have died!
Question 14
Which is the smallest morphological feature of a sponge?
A
Ascon
B
Hyperdemia
C
Leucon
D
Rhagon
E
Sycon
Question 15
Carboniferous period is divided into how many sub periods?
A
three
B
four
C
five
D
two
Question 16
Moldic fossilization always results preservation of the entire organic body.
A
False
B
True
Question 17
What is the smallest category of Modern Linnaean hierarchy?
A
Suborder
B
Subtribe
C
Subspecies
D
Tribe
E
Subfamily
Question 18
What do we call a graph that illustrates the the number of chambers with the area of each chamber?
A
Nongenetic Trajectory
B
Genetic Trajectory
C
Morphological Trajectory
D
Ontogeneric Trajectory
Question 19
The FAD (first appearance datum) is sometimes refereed as…
A
PTD
B
LAD
C
Acme Zone
D
Evolutionary Occurrence
Question 20
Which of the following is the most flat surface of a sponge?
A
amblyproct
B
euryproct
C
stenoproct
D
platyproct
Question 21
In modern Paleobiology, this type of variability is very useful in identifying species.
A
Morphological
B
Stratigraphic
C
Chemical
D
Genetic
Question 22
The term “Gas Window” which occurs at the temperatures between 120 – 225 degree Celsius associated with what type of fossilization?
A
Impregnation
B
Carbonization
C
Impressions
D
Congealment
Question 23
Longer the range which the organism existed on fossil record, better the data which it can provide on the interval zone.
A
False
B
True
Question 23 Explanation: 
Shorter existed organisms provide the best identifiers known as index fossils.
Question 24
Which of the following has the highest precedence, in relation to each other? (largest group)
A
Superclass
B
Order
C
Phylum
D
Kingdom
Question 25
Genetic variability only occurs in sexually reproductive species.
A
True
B
False
Question 26
When did the Holocene started (according 2013 Geologic Time Scale convention)?
A
66 millions of years ago
B
13 millions of years ago
C
541 millions of years ago
D
0.0117 millions of years ago
Question 27

Choose the odd one out based on the process of fossilization. (Choose the best option!)

Insects
Diatoms
Bivalves
Coccolithophorids
Sponges
Gastropods

A
Gastropods
B
Diatoms
C
Bivalves
D
Insects
Question 27 Explanation: 
This is a tricky hard question. The Insects are the ONLY one on the list that falls in the category of unaltered fossilization (most of the time, but not all the time).
Question 28
Classification of fossils and modern organisms into groups known as…
A
biostratigraphy.
B
taxa.
C
taxonomy.
D
evolutionary biology.
Question 29
When is the end of the Mesozoic era?
A
252.17 Ma
B
0.011710 Ma
C
541 Ma
D
66.0 Ma
Question 30
Which of the two sections are not found in original Linnaean hierarchy?
A
Class and Species
B
Genus and Species
C
Phylum and Family
D
Order and Family
Question 31
An example of an organism that underwent molting would be…
A
humans.
B
trilobite.
C
bivalves.
D
echinoids.
Question 32
This type of zone divisions are commonly used for analyzing biostratigraphy of invertebrates.
A
Morphological Zones
B
Assemblage Zones
C
Interval Zones
D
Acme Zones
Question 33
In __I__ growth, the organism shape remains the same while in __II__ growth, the organism shape changes with the development.
A
I. non-symmetrical
II. symmetrical
B
I. anisometric
II. isometric
C
I. isometric
II. anisometric
D
I. symmetrical
II. non-symmetrical
Question 34
On the conventional Geologic Time Scale, which of the following period is not a part of Paleozoic?
A
Permian
B
Archean
C
Silurian
D
Devonian
Question 35
In the Phylum Porifers (sponges), this particular Class is characterized by spicules that intersects with about 60o/120o angles.
A
Class Germaphobia
B
Class Hexactinellida
C
Class Calcarea
D
Class Demospongea
Question 36
According to paleobiological evidence the world is 6000 years old.
A
False
B
True
Question 37
Organisms belongs to Phylum Archaeocyatha have been found in the fossil record as far back as…
A
Early Lower Permian
B
Middle Ordovician
C
Lower Silurian
D
Early middle Cambrian
Question 38
Which of the following is an example of a “living fossil”?
A
Archaeocyathid
B
Lingula
C
Inoceramus
D
Pentremites
Question 38 Explanation: 
Lingula is one of the oldest living fossils that was found in the fossils records as far as Ordovician. Living fossils are organisms that has survived to this day.
Question 39
Most common organisms found in Amber based fossilization process are…
A
dinosaurs.
B
insects.
C
coprolites (poops).
D
mammals.
Question 40
Subaerial carbonates are used for what type of studies?
A
Chemical compositional studies
B
Morphological studies
C
Genetic studies
D
Behavioral studies (trace fossils)
Question 41
The Sub Class Zoantharia is in what Phylum of Kingdom Animalia?
A
Phylum Helmichordata
B
Phylum Porifera
C
Phylum Cnidaria
D
Phylum Brachiopoda
Question 42
Which of the following statement is true?
A
Echinoids great are examples discontinuous genetic variability.
B
Continuous genetic variability occurs in species with large morphological differences between sexes.
C
Discontinuous genetic variability is more frequent than continuous genetic variability.
D
Discontinuous genetic variability is less frequent than continuous genetic variability.
Question 43
Non-wave resistance organic buildups are often describes as…
A
ecologic.
B
biocherms.
C
reefs.
D
platonic.
Question 44
During accretion type growth, the organisms continuously grow at a steady (same) rate.
A
False
B
True
Question 44 Explanation: 
While they keep increasing in structure at a continuous phase, the growth speeds may varies from time to time.
Question 45
What is the species of Hexagonaria cristata?
A
Hexagonaria
B
Cnidaria
C
Cristata
D
Animalia
Question 46
What is the largest division in taxonomical hierarchy?
A
classes
B
orders
C
families
D
phyla
E
genera
Question 47
Acme zone is best described as…
A
Abundance of specific organisms in a given time window.
B
The last appearance of an organism/group.
C
Sudden fluctuation in morphological features of an organism/group.
D
The first appearance of an organism/group.
Question 48

There are only two sub-Periods (subdivisions) on this diagram. They are represented by 3J and 3K. What are they?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
3J – Mississippian
3K – Pennsylvanian
B
3J – Pennsylvanian
3K – Mississippian
C
3J – Silurian
3K – Devonian
D
3J – Devonian
3K – Silurian
Question 49
What is the best ,morphological definition of a species?
A
Set of organisms with similar physical characteristics.
B
Populations that naturally breed together and provide viable offspring.
C
Grouping of kingdoms which have the height precedence in taxonomy.
D
Diagnosable cluster within which there is a pattern of ancestry.
Question 50
By convention, in order to be a true fossil, the sample must be at least ___ years old.
A
6000 years
B
50,000 years
C
8,000 years
D
22,000 years
E
11,700 years
Question 51

This particular Period is known for high volumes of coal formations. It is first appears on Geological records around 358.9 Ma. What is the Period and it’s location on the following diagram?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
Carboniferous; 3H
B
Jurassic; 3D
C
Carboniferous; 3B
D
Jurassic; 3E
Question 52
If you have to choose the best possible symmetry of the following diagram, what would that be? (Assume you know nothing about this organism. Just looking at the diagram…)
What is this?
A
Radial
B
Pentameral
C
Not enough information is given.
D
Bilateral
Question 53
Sometimes we can identify fossils by their physical characteristics. What is the most probable type of fossil in this diagram?
What is this?
A
Cruziana
B
Brachiopod
C
Ammonite
D
Trilobite
Question 54
Which term do we use to describe the fossils that only occurred in certain restricted periods in biostratigraphy? (useful for defining boundaries)
A
index fossils
B
most abundant fossils
C
trace fossils
D
identity fossil
E
characteristic fossil
Question 55
Both fossils and trace fossils are useful in determining the history of biological cycles.
A
True
B
False
Question 56
Stromatoporoids are important reef builders of what Geologic time period?
A
Cretaceous to Neogene
B
Cambrian to Mississippian
C
Ordovician-Devonian
D
Ordovician to Permian
Question 57
Which of the following statements are true about Phylum Proifera.
A
They have well specialized organs.
B
They are planktonic organisms.
C
They lived attached to the substratum with the aid of root-like structures.
D
SpongeBob SquarePants can NOT be classified into Phylum Proifera.
Question 58
Ontogenetic refers to ____ of organisms.
A
living environments
B
genetic structures
C
genetic variation
D
growth stages.
Question 59
What type of growth you would expect to find in humans like your grandma?
A
Modification
B
Molting
C
Addition
D
Accretion
Question 60

What are the Eons represented by 1A and 1B respectively on the following diagram?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
Cenozoic and Mesozoic
B
Cenozoic and Paleozoic
C
Phanerozoic and Precambrian
D
Proterozoic and Archean
Question 61
Profera and Archaeocyatha are colonial life forms.
A
True
B
False
Question 62
Which of the following is the female reproductive cells of a sponge?
A
archaeocytes
B
choanocytes
C
sclerocytes
D
pinacocytes
Question 63
Pentamerism is a sub category of what type of symmetry?
A
Biradial symmetry
B
Radial symmetry
C
Spherical symmetry
D
Bilateral symmetry
Question 64
Choose the best answer for the following statements.
-underwent rapid burial
-internal structures were often preserved
-most fossils from Ediacaran period were fossilized through this process.
A
Carbonization
B
Permineralization
C
Permineralization
D
Impressions
Question 65
The FAD (First Appearance Datum) and LAD (Last Appearance Datum) is associated with Interval Zones.
A
True
B
False
Question 66
Cretaceous, Jurassic and Teiassic periods are all part of what era?
A
Paleozoic
B
Carboniferous
C
Cenozoic
D
Mesozoic
E
Precambrian
Question 67
Sponges have solid codes within their spicules.
A
True
B
False
Question 68
The following observations were made during an examination of a sample:
– the frustule is composed of organic silica
– radial symmetry
– found in sediment samples throughout Jurassic to Holocene
– is a microfossil
This sample most like be a…
A
slilicoflagellate.
B
tasmanitid.
C
coccolithophorid.
D
diatom.
E
not enough data to distinguish.
Question 68 Explanation: 
As soon as you hear “frustule”, the “diatoms” should invade your brain cells.
Question 69
Gerotic is equivalent of being…
A
old.
B
young.
C
under development.
D
mature.
Question 70
Non-genetic variations in species are most likely caused by…
A
ecological conditions.
B
differentiation between growth stages.
C
sexual dimorphism.
D
sudden changes in genetic variation.
Question 71
What structure is labeled with number 7 on the following diagram?
paleo_px-Archaeocyatha

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeocyatha.png
A
holdfast
B
basal ring
C
feet
D
central cavity
Question 72
How many kinds of genetic variability do we use in Paleobiological studies?
A
two
B
one
C
infinite
D
three
Question 72 Explanation: 
They are; continuous and discontinuous
Question 73
If large scale shell deformation is observed in a confined region, it is most likely caused by non-genetic variability factors; such as high density of population.
A
True
B
False
Question 73 Explanation: 
Although this could eventually lead to genetic variability….
Question 74

On the following diagram, what is highlighted in 2D?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
Devonian
B
Ediacaran
C
Cretaceous
D
Ordovician
E
Neoproterozoic
Question 75
What is the most likely type of growth strategy of Radiolarians?
A
Modification
B
Addition
C
Accretion
D
Molting
Question 76

What is 3L on the following diagram?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
Devonian
B
Pennsylvanian
C
Ordovician
D
Jurassic
Question 77
The category Tribe can only be found in…
A
Original Linnaean hierarchy
B
Modern Linnaean hierarchy
C
Improved Linnaean hierarchy
Question 78
As skeleton to human, _____ to diatoms.
A
cells
B
test
C
opaline silica
D
frustule
Question 79
You came across a really really old rock. Your prof said that it is one of the oldest. It is most likely from which period?
A
Cretaceous
B
Eoarchean
C
Ediacaran
D
Holocene
Question 79 Explanation: 
Ediacaran probably the best choice since we haven’t found any rocks as old as Eoarchean. If you did find one, please give me a call ASAP.
Question 80
Which of the following cell types are responsible for gathering food in sponges?
A
Archaeocytes
B
Choanocytes
C
Sclerocytes
D
Pinacocytes
Question 81

On the following diagram, what is highlighted in 3C?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
Paleogene
B
Cretaceous
C
Permian
D
Quaternary
Question 82
We live in which era?
A
Quaternary
Hint:
This is the period and NOT the era.
B
Miocence
C
Cenozoic
D
Holocene
Hint:
This is the Epoch and NOT the era.
Question 83
Which of the following process best describe the fossilization process of woolly mammoth of Siberia?
A
Fossilization in Amber
B
Impregnation
C
Congealment
D
Moldic fossilization
Question 84
On the current Geologic Time Scale, this section is further divided due to empirical evidence found in North America.
A
Neogene
B
Paleozoic
C
Neoproterozoic
D
Carboniferous
Question 84 Explanation: 
They are Pennsylvanian and Mississippian.
Question 85

On the following diagram, around what time 5A ended?
Note: DO NOT scroll down to the Geologic Time scale on this page. Answer this without using any AIDS.

geo_time_scale_pleo_unkn

A
4560 Ma
B
66.0 Ma
C
252.17 Ma
D
4030 Ma

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