In the past (eg. 1950s), individuals with physics and mathematics degrees were trained to become geophysicists by companies and government institutions. Modern geoscience includes two major branches; geology and geophysics. Hundreds of universities across North America offer undergraduate BSc programs in geophysics. Geophysics can be defined as the mathematical approach to geology. It integrates both physics and natural geology into one subject matter. One of the most fundamental methods of geophysical data gathering is seismic survey.